Research leader

Prof Michael Griffith
Prof Michael Griffith Research Leader

Research team

Hossein Derakhshan Research Team
Dr Alex Ng Research Team
Dr Phillip Visintin Research Team
Prof Mark Jaksa Research Team
Prof Abdul Sheikh Research Team
Mark Edwards
Mark Edwards Research Team
Martin Wehner Research Team
Nelson Lam
Prof Nelson Lam Research Team
Dr Elisa Lumantarna Research Team
Prof John Wilson Research Team
Prof Emad Gad Research Team
Dr Hyeuk Ryu Research Team
Dr Hing Ho Tsang Research Team
Dr Valdis Juskevics Research Team

End User representatives

Leesa Carson
Leesa Carson End-User
Ron De Veer End-User
Scott Munter End-User
Steve Gray End-User

Student researchers

Dr Ryan Hoult Student Reseacher
Dr Anita Amirsardari Student Reseacher
Dr Alireza Zabihi Student Reseacher

This research developed an evidence base to inform decision making on the mitigation of the seismic risk posed by the most vulnerable Australian buildings subject to earthquakes. Without this evidence base, it is impossible to make cost-effective and economically justifiable decisions by building owners and government officials on all matters concerning seismic strengthening of existing and design of new buildings.  While the focus of this project was on buildings, many of the project outputs are also relevant for other Australian infrastructure such as bridges, roads and ports, while at the same time complementing other CRC project proposals for severe wind and flood. 

In order to achieve the overall project aim, work was undertaken on three complementary fronts to:

  1. understand the seismic vulnerabilities of existing unreinforced masonry (URM) and limited ductile reinforced concrete (LDRC) buildings and methods to address them through seismic retrofit
  2. risk assessment of the building stock through development of an economic loss model with trial evaluations for a regional town (York, WA) and a metropolitan area (Melbourne)
  3. advance an end-user focused research utilisation project in the area of community risk reduction. This is done through an Earthquake Mitigation Case Study for the historic town of York in Western Australia.

Read the final report here.

Year Type Citation
2019 Journal Article Tsang, H. - H. Innovative Upscaling of Architectural Elements for Strengthening Building Structures. Sustainability 11, 2636 (2019).
2020 Journal Article Tang, Y., Lam, N. & Tsang, H. - H. A Computational Tool for Ground‐Motion Simulations Incorporating Regional Crustal Conditions. Seismological Research Letters (2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1785/0220200222
2017 Journal Article Tsang, H. - H., Wilson, J., Lam, N. & Su, R. Kai Leng. A design spectrum model for flexible soil sites in regions of low-to-moderate seismicity. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 92, 36-45 (2017).
2017 Journal Article Tsang, H. - H., Wilson, J. & Lam, N. A refined design spectrum model for regions of lower seismicity. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 18, (2017).
2019 Journal Article Tsang, H. - H., Daniell, J., Wenzel, F. & Wilson, J. A universal approach for evaluating earthquake safety level based on societal fatality risk. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering 1-24 (2019). doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-019-00727-9
2020 Journal Article Tang, Y., Lam, N., Tsang, H. - H. & Lumantarna, E. An Adaptive Ground Motion Prediction Equation for Use in Low-to-Moderate Seismicity Regions. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 1-23 (2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2020.1784810
2017 Journal Article Yacoubian, M., Lam, N., Lumantarna, E. & Wilson, J. Analytical modelling of podium interference on tower walls in buildings. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 18, (2017).
2016 Journal Article Mehdipanah, A., Lam, N. & Lumantarna, E. Analytical Simulation of Limited Ductile RC Beam-Columns. (2016). at <https://www.aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/331-Alireza-Mehdipanah-et-al.pdf>
2017 Journal Article Hashemi, M. et al. Application of hybrid simulation for collapse assessment of post-earthquake CFRP-repaired RC columns. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering 143, (2017).
2017 Journal Article Tiwari, R., Lam, N. & Lumantarna, E. Assessment of Displacement Demand for Earth Retaining Structures. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society (2017). at <http://www.aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/453-Rohit-Tiwari.pdf>
2020 Journal Article Raza, S., Menegon, S., Tsang, H. - H. & Wilson, J. Axial Load Variation of Columns in Symmetrical RC Buildings Subject to Bidirectional Lateral Actions in Regions of Low to Moderate Seismicity. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 1-29 (2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2020.1772151
2017 Journal Article Derakhshan, H., Visintin, P. & Griffith, M. Case studies of material properties of late nineteenth-century unreinforced masonry buildings in Adelaide. Australian Journal of Civil Engineering 15, (2017).
2017 Journal Article Hashemi, M., Tsang, H. - H., Al-Ogaidi, Y., Wilson, J. & Al-Mahaidi, R. Collapse assessment of reinforced concrete building columns through multi-axis hybrid simulation. ACI Structural Journal 114, (2017).
2020 Journal Article Tsang, H. - H., Wilson, J. & Gad, E. F. Collapse probability of soft-storey building in Australia and implications for risk-based seismic design. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 1-13 (2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13287982.2020.1835157
2020 Report Mohanty, I., Edwards, M., Ryu, H. & Wehner, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy development for building related earthquake risk. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2020).
2021 Report Griffith, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy development for building related earthquake risk - final project report. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2021).
2015 Report Griffith, M. Cost-Effective Mitigation Strategy Development for Building Related Earthquake Risk Annual Report 2014. (2015).
2019 Report Griffith, M. et al. Cost-Effective Mitigation Strategy Development for Building Related Earthquake Risk Annual Report 2017-2018. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2019).
2021 Report Ryu, H. et al. Cost-effective mitigation strategy development for building related earthquake risk – Melbourne case study. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2021).
2015 Report Griffith, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy development for building related earthquake risk: Annual project report 2014-2015. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2015).
2016 Report Griffith, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy development for building related earthquake risk: Annual project report 2015-2016. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2016).
2020 Report Griffith, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy development for building related earthquake risk: annual report 2019-2020. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2020).
2019 Report Mohanty, I., Edwards, M., Ryu, H. & Wehner, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy development for building related earthquake risk: progress report on economic loss modelling . (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2019).
2018 Report Mohanty, I., Edwards, M., Ryu, H. & Wehner, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy development for building related earthquake risk: reporting on economic loss models. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2018).
2019 Report Griffith, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy for building related earthquake risk - annual report 2018-2019. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2019).
2017 Report Griffith, M. et al. Cost-effective mitigation strategy for building related earthquake risk: annual project report 2016-17. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2017).
2017 Report Mohanty, I., Edwards, M., Ryu, H. & Wehner, M. Cost-effective mitigation strategy for building related earthquake risk: final report on economic loss modelling. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2017).
2019 Conference Paper Alazem, R., Lumantarna, E., Lam, N. & Menegon, S. Development of Cost-effective Mitigation Strategy for Limited Ductile Reinforced Concrete Buildings. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2019 Conference (2019). at <https://aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/55-Raneem-Alazem.pdf>
2016 Journal Article Tiwari, R., Lam, N. & Lumantarna, E. Displacement Based Design of Bridge Abutments. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society (2016). at <https://www.aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/337-Tiwari-et-al.pdf>
2015 Journal Article Wibowo, A., Wilson, J., Lam, N. & Gad, E. F. Drift capacity of lightly reinforced concrete columns. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 15, 131-150 (2015).
2014 Journal Article Wibowo, A., Wilson, J., Lam, N. & Gad, E. F. Drift performance of lightly reinforced concrete columns. Engineering Structures 59, 522-535 (2014).
2014 Journal Article Wibowo, A., Wilson, J., Lam, N. & Gad, E. F. Drift performance of lightly reinforced concrete columns. Engineering Structures 59, 522-535 (2014).
2014 Journal Article Sivanerupan, S., Wilson, J., Gad, E. F. & Lam, N. Drift Performance of Point Fixed Glass Façade Systems. Advances in Structural Engineering 17, 1481-1495 (2014).
2019 Conference Paper Ryu, H. et al. Earthquake Management Logistics for York, WA, Pre and Post Mitigation. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2019 Conference (2019). at <https://aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/70-Hyeuk-Ryu.pdf>
2020 Report Wehner, M. et al. Earthquake mitigation of WA regional towns: York case study - final report. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2020).
2016 Report Griffith, M. & Lucas, W. Economic loss modelling of earthquake damaged buildings. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2016).
2017 Journal Article Yacoubian, M., Lam, N., Lumantarna, E. & Wilson, J. Effects of podium interference on shear force distributions in tower walls supporting tall buildings. Engineering Structures 148, (2017).
2018 Report Vaculik, J. & Griffith, M. Final report on fragility curves for retrofitted URM buildings in Australia. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2018).
2018 Report Derakhshan, H. & Griffith, M. Final report on pushover analysis of classes of URM buildings to characterise drift ratios for different damage levels. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2018).
2020 Report Lumantarna, E., Lam, N., Tsang, H. - H., Gad, E. F. & Wilson, J. Final report on vulnerability of as-built and retrofitted LDRC buildings. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2020).
2019 Report Vaculik, J. & Griffith, M. Final report on vulnerability of as-built and retrofitted URM buildings. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2019).
2017 Report Derakhshan, H., Lucas, W., Visintin, P. & Griffith, M. Final report: seismic retrofit tests of URM cavity walls. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2017).
2019 Journal Article Menegon, S. et al. Framework for seismic vulnerability assessment of reinforced concrete buildings in Australia. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 20, 143-158 (2019).
2016 Journal Article Oehlers, D. J., Visintin, P. & Lucas, W. Fundamental Mechanics Governing FRP-Retrofitted RC Beams with Anchored and Prestressed FRP Plates. Journal of Composites for Construction 20, (2016).
2019 Conference Paper Tsang, H. - H., Daniell, J., Wenzel, F. & Wilson, J. How Safe is Safe Enough? Melbourne Case Study. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2019 Conference (2019). at <https://aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/66-Hing-Ho-Tsang.pdf>
2020 Journal Article Howlader, M., Masia, M. & Griffith, M. In-plane response of perforated unreinforced masonry walls under cyclic loading. Journal of Structural Engineering 146, (2020).
2020 Journal Article Howlader, M., Masia, M. & Griffith, M. In-plane shear testing of unreinforced masonry walls and comparison with FEA and NZSEE predictions. 5, (2020).
2017 Journal Article Derakhshan, H., Lucas, W. & Griffith, M. In-situ seismic verification of non-structural components of unreinforced masonry buildings. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 19, (2017).
2018 Journal Article Derakhshan, H., Lucas, W., Visintin, P. & Griffith, M. Laboratory testing of strengthened cavity unreinforced masonry walls. Journal of Structural Engineering 144, (2018).
2015 Journal Article Lam, N., Tsang, H. - H., Lumantarna, E. & Wilson, J. Local intraplate earthquake considerations for Singapore. The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering 8, 62-70 (2015).
2017 Conference Paper Lumantarna, E., Mehdipanah, A., Lam, N. & Wilson, J. Methods of structural analysis of buildings in regions of low to moderate seismicity. 2017 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (2017).
2017 Journal Article Mehdipanah, A., Lumantarna, E. & Lam, N. Methods of Structural Analysis of Buildings Incorporating Higher Modes Effects. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 10 (2017). at <http://www.aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/463-Alireza-Mehdipanah.pdf>
2016 Journal Article Lam, N., Tsang, H. - H., Lumantarna, E. & Wilson, J. Minimum loading requirements for areas of low seismicity. Earthquakes and Structures 11, 539-561 (2016).
2019 Conference Paper Edwards, M. et al. Mitigating earthquake risk in Australia. 2019 Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Annual NZSEE Conference (2019). at <http://db.nzsee.org.nz/2019/Oral/8C.05%20Edwards.pdf>
2020 Journal Article Tiwari, R., Lam, N. & Lumantarna, E. Modeling of Seismic Actions on Earth Retaining Structures. Recent Advances in Computational Mechanics and Simulations 103, 247-256 (2020).
2017 Journal Article Vaculik, J., Sturm, A. B., Visintin, P. & Griffith, M. Modelling FRP-to-substrate joints using the bilinear bond-slip rule with allowance for friction - Full-range analytical solutions for long and short bonded lengths. International Journal of Solids and Structures (2017). doi:10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2017.11.024
2019 Conference Paper Edwards, M., Wehner, M., Ryu, H., Griffith, M. & Vaculik, J. Modelling the vulnerability of old URM buildings and the benefit of retrofit. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2019 Conference (2019). at <https://aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/02-Mark-Edwards.pdf>
2020 Journal Article Howlader, M., Masia, M. & Griffith, M. Numerical analysis and parametric study of unreinforced masonry walls with arch openings under lateral in-plane loading. Engineering Structures 208, (2020).
2019 Conference Paper Vaculik, J. & Griffith, M. Out-of-plane fragility of URM parts and components based on time-history analysis-comparison to simplified force-based approaches. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2019 Conference (2019). at <https://aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/62-Jaroslav-Vaculik.pdf>
2018 Journal Article Derakhshan, H., Lucas, W., Visintin, P. & Griffith, M. Out-of-plane strength of existing two-way spanning solid and cavity unreinforced masonry walls. Structures 13, 88-101 (2018).
2015 Journal Article Kafle, B., Lam, N., Lumantarna, E., Gad, E. F. & Wilson, J. Overturning of precast RC columns in conditions of moderate ground shaking. Earthquakes and Structures 8, 1-18 (2015).
2020 Journal Article Tsang, H. - H., Tran, D. - P., Hung, W. - Y., Pitilakis, K. & Gad, E. F. Performance of geotechnical seismic isolation system using rubber‐soil mixtures in centrifuge testing. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics (2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.3398
2019 Conference Paper Lumantarna, E., Lam, N. & Wilson, J. Predicting Maximum Displacement Demand of Asymmetric Reinforced Concrete Buildings. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2019 Conference (2019). at <https://aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/43-Elisa-Lumantarna.pdf>
2016 Report Edwards, M., Mohanty, I., Ryu, H. & Wehner, M. Preliminary report on economic loss modelling. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2016).
2019 Conference Paper Xing, B., Lumantarna, E., Lam, N. & Menegon, S. Prioritisation strategy for seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete buildings in Australia. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 2019 Conference (2019). at <https://aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/21-Bin-Xing.pdf>
2020 Report Ryu, H., Wehner, M., Edwards, M. & Mohanty, I. Progress report on case study CBD precinct. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2020).
2019 Report Lumantarna, E., Lam, N., Tsang, H. - H., Gad, E. F. & Wilson, J. Progress report on costing of limited ductile reinforced concrete buildings. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2019).
2017 Journal Article Menegon, S., Wilson, J., Lam, N. & Gad, E. F. RC walls in Australia: reconnaissance survey of industry and literature review of experimental testing. Australian Journal of Structural Engineering 18, (2017).
2015 Conference Paper Tsang, H. - H., Wilson, J. & Lam, N. Recommended Site Classification Scheme and Design Spectrum Model for Regions of Lower Seismicity. Tenth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering Building an Earthquake-Resilient Pacific (2015).
2018 Report Lumantarna, E. et al. Report on fragility curves for limited ductile reinforced concrete buildings. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2018).
2016 Conference Paper Rumsewicz, M. Research proceedings from the 2016 Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC and AFAC conference. Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC & AFAC annual conference 2016 (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2016).
2015 Presentation Griffith, M. Resilience and Mitigation through Hardening the Built Environment. (2015).
2018 Report Griffith, M. & Vaculik, J. Retrofitting costs for URM buildings. (Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC, 2018).
2015 Conference Paper Hoult, R. D. & Lumantarna, E. Seismic assessment of non-ductile reinforced concrete C-shaped walls in Australia. The Eighth International Structural Engineering and Construction Conference, Sydney, Australia. (Goldsworthy, H. M.) (2015).
2020 Journal Article Amirsardari, A., Lumantarna, E., Rajeev, P. & Goldsworthy, H. M. Seismic Fragility Assessment of Non-ductile Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Australia. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 1-35 (2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2020.1750508
2019 Journal Article Derakhshan, H., Walsh, K., Ingham, J., Griffith, M. & Thambiratnam, D. Seismic fragility assessment of nonstructural components in unreinforced clay brick masonry buildings. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics (2019). doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.3238
2017 Journal Article Amirsardari, A., Goldsworthy, H. M., Lumantarna, E. & Rajeev, P. Seismic fragility curves for limited ductile RC Buildings including the response of gravity frames. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society 13 (2017). at <http://www.aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/455-Anita-Amirsardari.pdf>
2018 Journal Article Zabihi, A., Tsang, H. - H., Gad, E. F. & Wilson, J. Seismic retrofit of exterior RC beam-column joint using diagonal haunch. Engineering Structures 174, (2018).
2018 Journal Article Wilson, J., Tsang, H. - H. & Liu, X. Seismic retrofit of precast soft-storey building using diagonal steel-shape memory alloy bracing device: Numerical investigation. Advances in Structural Engineering (2018). doi:10.1177/1369433218800939
2016 Journal Article Lumantarna, E. et al. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Asymmetrical Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Australia. Australian Earthquake Engineering Society (2016). at <https://www.aees.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/379-Lumantarna-et-al.pdf>
2021 Journal Article Mehdipanah, A., Lumantarna, E. & Lam, N. Shear Wall and Frame Dual Systems Featuring Discontinuous Load Paths in Frame Elements in Low-to-Moderate Seismic Regions. Journal of Earthquake Engineering (2021). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2021.1964643
2020 Journal Article Derakhshan, H., Nakamura, Y., Griffith, M. & Dhanasekar, M. Simplified calculation of roof accelerations in existing low-rise symmetric unreinforced masonry buildings with flexible diaphragms. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering (2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-020-00823-1
2016 Journal Article Lam, N., Wilson, J. & Lumantarna, E. Simplified elastic design checks for torsionally balanced and unbalanced low-medium rise buildings in lower seismicity regions. Earthquakes and Structures 11, 741-777 (2016).
2018 Journal Article Vaculik, J., Visintin, P., Griffith, M., .G.Burton, N. & .Seracino, R. State-of-the-art review and future research directions for FRP-to-masonry bond research: Test methods and techniques for extraction of bond-slip behaviour. Construction and Building Materials 20, (2018).
2020 Journal Article Derakhshan, H., Nakamura, Y., Griffith, M. & Ingham, J. Suitability of Height Amplification Factors for Seismic Assessment of Existing Unreinforced Masonry Components. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 1-20 (2020). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2020.1716889
2021 Journal Article Hu, Y., Lam, N., Menegon, S. & Wilson, J. The Selection and Scaling of Ground Motion Accelerograms for Use in Stable Continental Regions. Journal of Earthquake Engineering (2021). doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2021.1913456
2015 Conference Paper Hoult, R. D., Goldsworthy, H. M. & Lumantarna, E. Torsional Displacement for Asymmetric Low-Rise Buildings with RC C-shaped Cores. Tenth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Sydney, Australia. (2015).
2018 Journal Article Raza, S., Tsang, H. - H. & Wilson, J. Unified models for post-peak failure drifts of normal- and high-strength RC columns. Magazine of Concrete Research 70, 1101 (2018).
2019 Journal Article Tang, Y., Lam, N., Tsang, H. - H. & Lumantarna, E. Use of Macroseismic Intensity Data to Validate a Regionally Adjustable Ground Motion Prediction Model. Geosciences 9, (2019).
2019 Journal Article Hoult, R. D., Goldsworthy, H. M. & Lumantarna, E. Vulnerability Functions for RC Shear Wall Buildings in Australia. Earthquake Spectra 35, 27 (2019).
Date Titlesort descending Download Key Topics
31 Oct 2017 Built environment cluster PDF icon 713.22 KB (713.22 KB) engineering, mitigation, multi-hazard
31 Oct 2017 Cost-effective mitigation strategy for building related earthquake risk PDF icon 1.76 MB (1.76 MB) earthquake, engineering, mitigation
03 Dec 2020 Earthquake mitigation of WA regional towns: York case study communities, earthquake, mitigation
20 Jun 2019 Hardening Building and Infrastructure Cluster PDF icon 1.39 MB (1.39 MB) earthquake, mitigation
30 Jul 2019 Hardening Building and Infrastructure Cluster PDF icon 1.85 MB (1.85 MB) earthquake, mitigation, risk management
23 Nov 2018 Hardening buildings and infrastructure PDF icon 2.3 MB (2.3 MB) earthquake, risk management
04 May 2016 Hardening buildings and infrastructure - cluster overview File 0 bytes (0 bytes) engineering, infrastructure, multi-hazard
24 Oct 2016 Resilience and mitigating through hardening the built environment PDF icon 4.01 MB (4.01 MB) earthquake, engineering, mitigation
20 Mar 2014 Resilience and Mitigation through Hardening the Built Environment PDF icon 16.21 MB (16.21 MB) coastal, cyclone, earthquake
04 Dec 2014 Resilience and mitigation through hardening the built environment PDF icon 1 MB (1 MB) earthquake, engineering, environments
07 Jul 2016 Ryan Hoult Infrastructure Engineering (UoM) 2015 Postgraduate Conference File 3.55 MB (3.55 MB) earthquake
30 Jan 2017 Strengthening infrastructure for natural hazard impacts PDF icon 358.94 KB (358.94 KB) earthquake, engineering, mitigation
07 Jul 2017 Towards a safer built environment PDF icon 8.24 MB (8.24 MB) engineering, infrastructure, multi-hazard
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