Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC
and CQUniversity

Emergency Management Non‑Technical Skills

Download PDF


This tool helps emergency and incident management teams enhance non-technical skills (such as communication or leadership skills) to develop more effective teamwork capabilities. There are seven core non-technical skill categories, divided into elements and behavioural markers.

To help ensure that both positive (helpful) and negative (unhelpful) behaviours are considered, there are negative behavioural markers included in the checklist – these are marked in italics.

The EMNoTS can be used in several ways:

  • as a simple checklist, to quickly capture which non-technical skills are in play for a team
  • to facilitate an after-action review at the end of a shift or training exercise
  • to collect more detailed data to ascertain how well non-technical skills are being used, by clicking on OBSERVED and selecting on of the three options.

  • Using the EMNoTS ratings:

  • Not applicable: this behaviour is not relevant to the task or situation being observed.
  • Not observed: this behaviour is relevant to the task or situation, but is not observed.
  • Observed: this behaviour is relevant to the task or situation and is observed. If selected, a prompt will appear to determine the extent to which this behaviour is observed.
  • Communication

    Effective communication

    Proactive communication


    Clear roles, responsibilities and expectations

    Adjusting to demands


    Contributes to a positive team environment

    Alignment of efforts and management of conflict


    Creates a suitable team environment

    Provides focus, direction and coordination

    Situation awareness

    Gathering and analysing information

    Identifies contingencies, problems and expectations

    Sharing information and insights


    Sound, timely decisions

    Appropriate decision-making approach

    Engaging others in decision-making

    Coping, stress and fatigue management

    Manages pressure

    Employs effective coping strategies

    Download PDF

    Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC logo CQ University logo