|Title||Wind uplift strength capacity variation in roof-to-wall connections of timber-framed houses|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Satheeskumar, N, Henderson, DJ, Ginger, JD, Wang, CH|
|Journal||Journal of Architectural Engineering|
The roof-to-wall connection in a house is designed to transfer the uplift and lateral loads during strong winds by providing a continuous load path from the roof to the foundation. The uplift capacity and failure mode of the connection depends on the number and type of fasteners (nails), timber species, type of framing anchor, and constructions defects. This paper presents experimental results that were used to assess the uplift capacity variation of typical roof-to-wall connections. Based on tests with two types of connections (triple grip and truss grip) assembled with two types of timber (radiata pine and spruce pine), nails (hand and gun), and framing anchors (triple grip and universal triple grip), the results show that the variation in timber species, nail, and triple grip type changes the strength and the failure modes of the connection. The strength of the connection was reduced by about 24% when the timber species was changed from radiata pine to spruce pine and the hand nail to gun nail on the triple grip connection. This study also showed that construction defects in roof-to-wall connections influence the design uplift capacity. If there are two missing nails in the hand-nailed triple grip connection (i.e., one nail on the truss and another one on the top plate) the design uplift capacity reduces by about 40% of the ideal hand-nailed triple grip connection. This study identified the critical nails and their locations required to mitigate failure of the roof-to-wall triple grip connection subject to wind loading.